Kazakh white-headed breed of cows: description, care and feeding
In the world there are more than 1080 breeds of cattle, which are divided into meat, dairy and mixed. One of the brightest representatives of meat breeds that enjoyed great success in the post-Soviet countries is the Kazakh white-headed. It is remarkable not only for its appearance, but also for the features of breeding and maintenance. Let's look at how to maintain highly effective indicators of this breed.
The Kazakh white-headed breed of cattle was bred in Kazakhstan through years of trial and error. Hereford bulls and females of local breeds (Kalmyk and Kazakh breeds) were crossed to obtain this breed.
These breeds were chosen for a reason, because they are very similar in their characteristics and genetic characteristics. Work on the breeding of the Kazakh white-headed began in the 30s of the XX century, but only in the 50s it was recognized as a new breed.
As a result of such activities, breeders got juicy and tasty meat. In addition, cows have a strong physique and good stamina.For breeding, individuals were selected whose color was dominated by red hues; as a result, calves of a red hue were born, but their head, chest, abdomen and legs were white. This feature formed the basis of the name.
Did you know? An interesting feature of the Kazakh white-headed breed is a change in hairline with a change in the seasons. Closer to winter, the coat becomes longer and thicker, which is an additional protection in the conditions of severe Kazakh winter.
These cows have a number of features that are common to all meat breeds:
- a strong and massive body in which muscles are clearly visible;
- wide, barrel-shaped body;
- strong legs that seem short, but at the same time quite hardy;
- strong skeleton.
When breeding this variety of cattle, it is necessary to strictly observe the rules of care and feeding, the only way to maintain high-quality indicators of this breed.
The main characteristics of the Kazakh white-headed breed of cows:
|Horns||Large, planted on opposite sides of the head|
|Chest||Barrel-shaped. In males, a dense under-breast is clearly visible.|
|Housing||Strong, a straight line of the back is clearly visible on it. Its length is 152–156 cm|
|Skeleton||Strong but light|
|Limbs||Short, but very muscular. If you measure the circumference in the metacarpal area, it will be from 19 to 21 cm|
|Wool||Short and smooth in the warm season, with colds grows long, thick and slightly curly.|
|Suit||Dark red color, and the head of the chest, limbs - white. White spots at the withers and in the sacrum can also occur.|
|Height at the withers||It can reach 120-132 cm|
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of this breed include:
- unpretentiousness and endurance;
- good adaptation to both the hot conditions of the steppe and the cold of the north;
- resistance to various diseases of cattle;
- tasty meat, which is appreciated among gourmets;
- good weight gain - at 18 months young growth reaches 450 kg, which is considered a good indicator of precocity.
- The disadvantages of the breed are:
- excessive care of the offspring;
- narrow breed, which has fewer muscles than cows of the Hereford breed.
The difference between the Kazakh white-headed from Hereford
These two breeds are close relatives, however, if you compare their indicators, you can see a number of advantages for each of them.Hereford cows are considered the most heavyweight, which already at 15 months in terms of weight gain surpass the Kazakh white-headed by 71.5 kg.
An adult bull of this breed can reach 1350 kg, while Griffon is only 900 kg. Cows are also more massive.However, if we consider the slaughter weight, then according to this indicator, Kazakh cows already at the age of seven months have an advantage over Hereford of 1.85%. By 15 months, this indicator practically remains at the same level (1.7%).
Did you know? Kazakh white-headed breed was used to breed cows of the Aulieatinsky breed.
If we calculate the carcass full-fledged coefficient, then at seven months of age the advantages are on the side of the Kazakh white-headed bulls (by 9%), and at 15 months - herefords (3%).
This difference is due to the fact that the mothers of the Kazakh white-headed milk production are much higher than their relatives. In addition, the fat content of milk is higher by 0.1%.
From the above it can be concluded that it is better to breed Kazakh white-headed cows for slaughter at the age of 7 months. And at the age of fifteen - Herefords. However, despite all the indicators, the output at any age will be greater for Kazakh baldheads.
Maintenance and care
Since this breed was bred on the expanses of the Kazakh steppes, the content and care has its own characteristics. So, for example, they prefer free movement, and keeping on a leash is not acceptable for them.
The survival rate for these breeds is almost the same and is 95–100%, which is a significant advantage compared to other breeds (for example, the Kalmyk breed has a survival rate of 90–95%).
The most optimal and low-cost loose housing, when animals can freely move around the pasture and provide themselves with food. This method of maintenance allows you to get the maximum weight gain, and for the farmer reduced feed costs.
For maintenance at night, it is enough to equip canopies or rooms of lightweight construction. Moreover, the area of such a design should be calculated as 6 square meters. m per individual. As a flooring straw is used. Such litter does not need to be replaced, just add a new layer.
Thus, you will provide your animals with an additional source of heat that can warm them in cold nights and even in winter.
Important! The loose housing is best used for a herd of 400 or more cattle.
The advantage of the summer playground and free cattle grazing is that the young growth is with cows, and this, in turn, favorably affects their development, health and significantly reduces maintenance costs.
Arrangement of a barn
Another way to keep livestock is to be kept in cowsheds. In such a content, animals are limited both in movement and in the variety of food.
The cowsheds are arranged in such a way that the central space is reserved for the young, where he can move freely. Along the perimeter, places of detention of adult individuals and calves that feed on breast milk are organized.At the end of the building, an area is organized for cows, which are preparing for the hotel, where they stay for two weeks.
As a separator between young and adult cows, feeders and drinking bowls can be installed.
When choosing feeders, it is necessary to clearly understand which feed will be used, for how many heads and the material from which they will be made. For feeding cattle with hay, it is best to use cone-shaped feeders; trapezoidal ones are also suitable.
If you use feed and grain, it is better to use vertical, inclined or automatic feeders.
Important! Conical feeders are the safest not only for equipping a barn, but also for a summer area. Another advantage of this design is its ease of use and assembly.
In the process of equipping the stall, it is also necessary to pay great attention to drinking bowls, because they must provide free access for all animals. That is why there are two varieties of drinking bowls: individual and group.
The former are used for cowsheds with a small herd, and besides, they are much easier to make on their own. In large farms, they can also be used for keeping cows and calves. The advantage of individual drinking bowls is the protection of cattle from the spread of various diseases, the absence of a crush at a watering hole.
Group drinkers are used on an industrial scale, where a large number of animals quench their thirst. They, in turn, are divided into mobile and stationary. The latter are used to equip the stall, and mobile are installed on pastures where there are no other sources of water.It is also important when equipping a barn to provide animals with a good flooring. As the flooring, straw is used, which is poured with a thickness of at least 40 cm and over time, pour more fresh with a calculation of 1-3 kg per individual.
Conditions of detention
In content, the Kazakh white-headed is considered one of the most picky cows. This breed easily tolerates up to +50 degrees Celsius, so it is well adapted in the southern regions.
However, cold winters are not a problem for them, which makes it possible to grow these animals in the northern latitudes, where the temperature can drop to -40 ° С.
Cattle must be kept in a well-lit room with no drafts. Additional heating of the stall is not required, as the cows tolerate winter cold thanks to its long and thick coat.
An additional source of heating is the litter. Over time, it begins the process of decay, which is accompanied by heat. However, toxic gases are also released.
That is why the room should be well ventilated. This can be achieved in two ways: natural ventilation of the room and automated.
The first system is the cheapest and is laid down at the stage of building the premises, however, there is a likelihood of drafts that are undesirable when keeping cattle.
The second one can be installed at any time already at the operation stage. The advantage of an automated ventilation system is a fixed flow of fresh air, which is evenly distributed throughout the room.
Regular cleaning of the stall and equipment
In a clean room, the risk of developing various diseases is significantly reduced. That is why it is necessary to regularly clean and stall. Although Kazakh whiteheads are kept on a rough litter, however, over time, various microorganisms are planted in it that can destroy the whole herd.
To avoid this fate, it is necessary to remove the old litter with manure once a month and make a complete replacement of the flooring. And every week they add a new layer of straw so that the animals do not lie in the mud.
Daily drinkers and feeders must be washed. And once every 3 months, carry out mechanical disinfection. When identifying sick individuals, sanitary disinfection is carried out. However, it can be carried out as a prophylaxis once a year, preferably in the summer, when animals can freely move around the pasture.
What to feed
Cows of the Kazakh white-headed breed are also unpretentious for food, but only a balanced diet allows you to get the maximum gain in weight.
The diet of these animals can be divided into 2 periods:
- summer, when animals receive maximum nutrients in the pasture;
- winter, when the animal needs a large amount of nutrients.
Summer grazing in the pasture
Feeding cows is not difficult during this period of the year. They need free walking in the pasture, where they themselves will find everything they need for food. However, the pasture needs to be changed regularly, for example, once a month. At the same time, you need to choose fruitful so that on one hectare there are at least 8 centners of greenery.
Did you know? Cows of the Kazakh white-headed breed are considered one of the most hardy, as they can overcome up to 30 km per day under the ruthless scorching sun.
If a free range of livestock in the pasture is not possible, then a feeder with hay is installed in the corral. Grain, beets and silage are given as additional top dressing. Also, animals need to be supplemented with vitamin supplements and bone meal. The diet of manufacturing bulls for the most part contains cereals and legumes.
Winter Feeding Diet
In winter, cattle need an additional source of nutrients. The winter diet of the Kazakh white-headed consists of 60% of roughage (straw) and 40% of concentrated feed.
The animals are given feed, hay, silage. Also, cereals, root crops and legumes are introduced into the diet. Do not forget about vitamins and other nutrients, additional nutrition from bone meal, phosphates, chalk and calcium is additionally introduced into the diet.
Water and salt
A cow, like any other animal, needs water. Since cows are large enough animals, therefore, they need a large amount of liquid. An animal drinks 10 times a day a day, while at the same time they are able to drink up to 15 liters of water.Accordingly, on average about 150 liters are needed per animal. Of these, only 30–35 liters are needed to maintain vital processes in the body.
Another integral component in the diet of cows is salt. The animal cannot receive this element from plant food, therefore it is given as additional food. Salt is involved in the synthesis of hydrochloric acid, which is formed in the stomach.
Sodium is involved in the work of nerve endings, and also supports the health of muscle and bone tissues. In addition, sodium affects the percentage of fat in milk. Sodium Chloride helps maintain salt balance in the body. It participates in the metabolic process and has antibacterial properties.
However, table salt has its drawbacks. For example, its overabundance causes dysfunction of the genitals, the formation of cysts, and a decrease in the amount of milk. That is why it is very important to monitor the daily allowance given to cows.
The daily intake of salt can vary from the mass of the animal, the amount of milk the animal gives, and the time of year. For normal functioning of the body, the cows are given NaCl at the rate of 5 g for every 100 kg of live weight and 4 g for every liter of milk.
Salt can be given in bulk, but in this case there is a high probability of an overdose. However, the use of salt lizuns allows you to provide the necessary amount of NaCl. They can be hung near the feeder, where the animal can not trample the lizuny.
The subtleties of breeding young animals
Sexual maturity in this breed occurs at about 18 months, and the ability to reproduce remains for 10 years. The case occurs naturally, while fertilization occurs in 95% of females.
Important! The best time for calving is January-April. Calves born during this period of time, by the fall become more independent and prepared for the winter cold.
Pregnancy lasts for 285 days, and calving also occurs naturally and does not require human involvement. Calves are born weighing up to 30 kg. They are with their mother and feed on her milk.
Since this breed is meat, not dairy, young animals should not be weaned.With this content, they quickly gain weight. In the first 1.5 hours of life, the calf must be attached to the udder of the mother and for three months this will be his main diet. With breast milk, it not only receives nutrients, but also strengthens the immune system.
In the future, calves are gradually transferred to concentrated feed and greens. As food, you can use premixes or special additives that contain a large amount of phosphorus and calcium.
Do not rush to wean the calves from the cows, because when kept together, the young growth will adapt faster, and the weight gain will be much greater than that of calves raised by artificial feeding.In the first 3 months, calves with their mother are kept in a separate pen. When young animals are transferred to mixed feeding, they can be kept in the same pen with adults. However, when keeping animals in the stall, it is not necessary to transfer to adult individuals until the young growth is stronger and does not abandon the mother’s milk.
Kazakh white-headed breed of cows has a large number of advantages that many farmers have appreciated. This breed is dominant in the vastness of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, but also has taken root well in the north-west of Russia, in Belarus and Ukraine.
It has good productivity indicators, however, when choosing young animals, it is necessary to carefully check these indicators. After all, buying young animals, you can buy cows of dairy or mixed breeds, which differ in weight.