Red-motley breed of cattle: description, care and feeding
The red-motley breed of cows was bred recently - in 1998, so it has not yet managed to gain wide popularity. However, it certainly deserves the attention of breeders. What advantages do its representatives have, you can find out from our article.
Breeding was done by Russian breeders.
|head||large, proportional to the body|
|limbs||long, widely spaced, strong, with short dibs|
|height at the withers||heifers - 132–138 cm; bulls - 140–145 cm|
Did you know? Milk with a record fat content of 14.06% was produced by a cow of a Jersey breed. From a representative of the same breed for 14 lactations it was possible to get 211,235 kg of milk with a fat content of 5.47%.
Advantages and disadvantages
The content of this breed has several advantages:
- cows with proper care and feeding give a large amount of milk;
- animals are able to breed for a long time;
- cattle are well adapted to various climatic conditions, including heat;
- high milk yield - 1.6–1.8 kg / min .;
- rapid growth in young animals;
- 80% of females have a bowl-shaped udder, which is considered the best for milk production;
- Cattle is unpretentious to feed.
Maintenance and care
Several factors influence the level of animal productivity, the main of which are living conditions, quality of food and care. For keeping animals you will need a barn with certain temperature and humidity parameters and an open area for walking.
Cattle maintenance is not possible without walking. Daily walks in the fresh air are necessary for the normal functioning of the body, the stable operation of the internal organs and systems of the animal. Only with regular walks can good health and high productivity be possible. Cows can walk all year round, except for the time when adverse weather conditions are observed - severe frost, sleet.
Important! Animals must walk at least 2–3 hours a day. Only pregnant individuals who are left 2 are not allowed to walk–3 days before delivery.
It is advisable that a fenced place with a canopy is provided for cattle walking, where animals can hide from sunlight, rain, hail, snow. The recommended area of such a pen is 20 square meters. m per 1 individual. On a summer platform it should be convenient to make milking. Drinking bowls must be equipped on it. And in the fall and spring, if there is not enough grass that can be eaten, it is necessary to install feeders.
Arrangement of premises
It is best if the barn is brick or limestone. In order for cows to feel comfortable in winter, it is necessary to make it warm by insulating fireproof, and insulation resistant to detergents and disinfectants. A warm barn will protect animals from colds and will not reduce productivity even in winter. It is desirable that the floors in the cow dwelling also be insulated, made of wood.
Did you know? The average life expectancy of a cow is 20 years. The longevity record was recorded for a cow named Modoc in the USA. She lived 78 years and died in 1975.
If they are cement or concrete, then you can put wooden shields on them. From above, the floors are covered with bedding made of straw (20 cm layer), peat (10 cm) or hay (20 cm).Such litter will need to be periodically replaced and poured. Recommended norms for the area of the barn - 20 cubic meters. m per 1 adult, 10 cubic meters. m per 1 calf.The cowshed should be equipped with good ventilation, which can remove excess moisture and ventilate the room well. This will prevent the development of many diseases in cows. Ideally, the cowshed should be equipped with a drain or sewer and the floor should be tilted to facilitate regular cleaning. In different sections of the barn, bulls, dead cows, and young animals should be kept.
Conditions of detention
The red-motley breed stably tolerates various conditions of detention, but the highest productivity can be achieved from it only if you create the following parameters in the barn:
- air temperature - +5 ... + 20 degrees;
- air humidity - 50–70%.
Regular cleaning of the stall and equipment
Cattle must be kept clean. Feces must be cleaned daily, preferably in the mornings and evenings. Also every day you need to wash drinking bowls, feeders and used equipment. The bedding is carried out 1 time in 7-10 days, a complete replacement - 1 time per month. Cleaning with disinfectants is performed 1-2 times a year. Full examination of the condition of the barn - 1 time per year.
In order for milking to be successful, a cow and a place must be prepared. Site preparation is as follows:
- Remove the manure.
- Replace bedding.
Important! Massage of the mammary glands allows to increase the productivity of cows by 33%, is a preventive method against a number of diseases.
Preparation of the animal is as follows:
- Brush the coat.
- Tie up the tail.
- Wash the udder with warm water.
- Wipe dry with a clean towel.
- Massage all lobes.
What to feed
The diet of adults is developed based on the time of year, area of residence, age of the animal, the availability of certain types of feed and the period in which the cow is - dead, pregnant or lactational.
Important! Care must be taken to ensure that cows feed only on safe herbs and quality hay. Otherwise, there is a risk of poisoning and a drop in productivity.
Livestock pasture and feeding in the summer
In summer, cows need to be given the opportunity to eat pasture with succulent green foods. In addition, the diet must necessarily have mixed grass hay (about 8 kg per 1 specimen) and beets (15 kg). As a succulent feed give melons. One animal will need about 72 centners of feed per year.Cows should not be allowed to walk hungry - in the case of greedy and uncontrolled eating of grass, it is possible to develop problems with the gastrointestinal tract and serious diseases. Before a walk, you need to provide them with a portion of the winter menu.
Differences in winter feeding
The winter diet of cows should consist of coarse, succulent and combined feeds. Food for the winter must be prepared in advance.The amount of feed should be calculated based on the norm of 1.5–2 kg for every 100 kg of live weight. The diet should be balanced. A sample menu for dairy cows in the winter:
- wheatgrass hay - 9 kg;
- hay bean and grass - 2-3 kg;
- silo - 2-3 kg;
- haylage - 8–9 kg;
- compound feed - 3 kg.
Important! Feeding and milking should be carried out at the same time and in the same place. You can shift the mode for no more than 10 minutes. This is the key to good health, the normal operation of the digestive tract and a consistently high level of productivity.
It is good to introduce grain chaff and pea straw into the feed. Compound feed and grain should be given before milking, after it - silage and root crops.
During the day, the cow should drink a minimum of 50 liters of clean water per day. During lactation, this amount needs to be increased. Some individuals require about 100 liters per day at this time. Cows should not be given cold water; this is fraught with a cold. It needs to be warmed to room temperature. For convenience, you can buy special heated drinking bowls.Summing up, we note that the red-motley breed of cows is young, but promising for breeding both in small private farms and large livestock farms. She has excellent indicators of milk productivity, high-quality milk, beautiful external data and high meat quality. However, in order to achieve all this, it is necessary to comply with sanitary and veterinary standards of maintenance and feeding rules.