Bestuzhev cows: description, care and feeding
Bestuzhev cows are characterized by great endurance and the ability to adapt to environmental conditions. These animals perfectly take root in the continental climate and do not need specific care.
Description and standard of breed
Bestuzhev cows were artificially bred in the Russian Empire by the landowner S.P. Bestuzhev. He received this species in 1780 by crossing dairy and beef cattle.
Carrying out a strict selection of animals by productivity in the process of crossbreeding, Bestuzhev received a new universal breed of cows, which is distinguished by its resistance to diseases and large size.
Did you know? The weight of the world's largest cow was 2270 kg, and the height at the withers — 188 cm.
By productivity, cows of the Bestuzhev breed belong more to the meat direction than to the dairy. The milk yield of Bestuzhev cows can be increased if animals are fed with appropriate feeds and given more drink. But this breed is most often bred specifically for the purpose of obtaining meat.
The external characteristics of the bestuzhev cattle are shown in the table.
|Head||Small with a narrow forehead|
|Chest||Up to 194 cm|
|Housing||Long, sturdy and stocky|
|Muscle||Well-developed, medium-sized elastic udders|
|Skeleton||Thin bones, wide lower back and elevated sacrum|
|Limbs||Short, loose apart|
|Suit||From light red to dark cherry|
|Height at the withers||Up to 135 cm|
Advantages and disadvantages
The Bestuzhev breed has many advantages over other types of cows.
- The main positive qualities of these animals include:
- adaptation to any conditions;
- resistance to diseases (in particular, to tuberculosis, leukemia);
- rapid growth of young animals;
- high reproduction;
- unpretentiousness in leaving.
- The list of minuses of such cows include:
- roof-shaped sacrum;
- saber-shaped hind legs;
- interception behind the shoulder blades.
Maintenance and care
Even a novice can grow Bestuzhev cows. These animals do not require special conditions of detention or specific care. It is enough to know a few general rules for arranging a summer ground and a barn, as well as follow simple recommendations for caring for animals.
In the warmer months, for the cows you need to equip a summer terrace. It is a structure with a canopy and corrals. Such summer platforms are placed directly on the territory of the pasture to ensure constant access of animals to the grass. Good grazing results in a large milk yield from the cow.
A necessary element of the summer playground for Bestuzhev cows is a reliable roof. It protects from the bright sun and rain, preventing the occurrence of heat stroke or colds in animals.The construction of the summer camp is costly. But a well-equipped summer area simplifies the care of Bestuzhev cows and their maintenance in the summer. You can keep Bestuzhev cows on the summer platform until the first frost.
Did you know? The taste of milk in a cow varies depending on which grass she ate.
Arrangement of a barn
When constructing a room for keeping Bestuzhev cows, walls are best made from logs, and floors from burnt bricks. Animals of this breed do not require special conditions of detention, but there must be several mandatory elements in the barn:
- Feeders. Each animal should receive dry and wet food.In all stalls you need to equip a feeder for roughage (straw, green grass or hay). For durability it is better to make it of wood and hang it from the wall of the stall. The feeder is made in the form of a trapezoid, the base of which expands upward. The length of the container should not be less than 80 cm, and in volume it should contain about 20 kg of feed. For wet food, a special feeder is not needed. You can serve it to the animal in an ordinary bucket or trough.
- Drinking bowl. If the barn contains a small population of Bestuzhev cattle, then you can water the animals from an ordinary bucket. In this case, you need to periodically fill it with water manually during the day. If the number of animals is large, then to reduce human labor it is more reasonable to bring water to the barn and equip the drinking bowls from metal pipes cut along the stalls.
- Flooring. Most often, floors in cowsheds are made of cement and concrete, which are cold materials. So that Bestuzhev cows do not suffer from mastitis, it is necessary to make flooring from straw or sawdust in the stalls. In winter, it is better to use only straw for flooring, because it absorbs moisture well and retains heat for a long time. The thickness of the flooring should be such as to densely cover the cold floor, without leaving bare areas.
- Stall. Representatives of Bestuzhev cattle are large. Therefore, for the comfortable keeping of animals in the room, it is necessary to fulfill clear requirements for the parameters of the stall. Below are the dimensions of the stall for different individuals of this breed of cattle:
- for an adult cow: width - up to 1.2 m, length - up to 2 m;
- for the bull: width - 1.3 m, length - up to 1.5 m;
- for calf: width - up to 1 m, length - 1.5 m;
- for adult cow with calf: width - 1.5 m, length - up to 2 m.
Important! The ceiling height in the barn for bestuzhev cattle should be at least 2.5 m.
Conditions of detention
Bestuzhev cows are able to adapt to environmental conditions, but do not forget the general recommendations for their maintenance. Consider the basic requirements for the standards of keeping these animals:
- the temperature in the barn should not be lower than 8 degrees heat and not higher than 20 degrees. In the hot season, you need to regularly ventilate the room to refresh it. Bestuzhev cattle do not like dry air and intense heat. The winter cold also does not tolerate well, therefore, it is necessary to warm the room in advance, so that by the arrival of winter it would be warm and dry in the barn;
- the lighting in the barn should be bright enough, especially in winter. To do this, use bulbs with a power of at least 40 watts. With insufficient lighting, the well-being of the animals worsens and the volume of milk yield decreases;
- Cow ventilation can be done with open doors and windows. The main requirement is an effective supply of fresh air and a quick removal of stagnant. If open doors and windows do not cope with this function, then install a simple ventilation system in design;
- lack of drafts - A prerequisite for the well-being of Bestuzhev cows, especially in the cold season. To prevent cows from becoming sick, all cracks in the walls and roof must be carefully sealed.
Important! For normal health, Bestuzhev cattle in the room need air with a humidity of at least 65%.
Regular cleaning of the stall and equipment
The barn and equipment should be cleaned regularly. This will prevent the occurrence of various diseases in animals.There are several rules for cleaning barn items:
- Cleaning feeders is carried out regularly as they become dirty. Old food is thrown away and replaced with fresh. This will prevent diseases associated with the use of stale feed in Bestuzhev cows.
- Drinkers are also cleaned as needed. Drinking containers should be washed periodically using special disinfectants. If water supply and sewerage are connected to the drinkers, then it is necessary to eliminate blockages in the pipes in a timely manner.
- Replacing the flooring should be done daily. It is recommended to constantly add fresh straw to the flooring.
- Manure is cleaned every day in the morning and in the evening before milking. After removing the manure, wet cleaning should be carried out in the barn to increase the percentage of air humidity. Bestuzhev's cows are recommended to clean daily of dirt with the help of a soft brush. Perform this procedure before milking.
Did you know? During the decomposition of cow dung, greenhouse gas is released into our atmosphere — methane, contributing to the greenhouse effect.
Feeding and drinking
Bestuzhev cows are fed according to the rules of the season. To get good milk yield, you need to carefully monitor what kind of food the animals receive. The correct drinking regimen is also important.
Summer grazing in the pasture
In summer, animals receive food on pastures. This significantly reduces the cost of their feeding, i.e. fresh grass from the pasture takes the main place in the diet. But it is important to choose the right meadow for grazing animals.
Representatives of the Bestuzhev breed should not eat such herbs:
- marsh rosemary;
- euonymus warty;
- black bleached;
- Calla Marsh.
Important! In order for the cows to receive a sufficient amount of nutrients, even in the summer they need to be given a little feed.
Winter Feeding Diet
In the cold season, the level of feed intake decreases in livestock, which leads to a decrease in milk yield.
To avoid this problem and make the winter diet of Bestuzhev cows useful, you need to give them:
- hay - up to 1.5 kg daily;
- silage and root crops - give animals the necessary energy, increase milk yield;
- feed containing carotene and essential minerals;
- sugar beets for better digestion.
Representatives of Bestuzhev cattle breed need from 60 to 80 liters of water daily, and to get good milk yield this norm is even higher - up to 150 liters per day.
Cows can only be given warm drinks, even in summer. Animals need to be watered several times a day, each time pouring them fresh clean water.
Due to the high productivity and low maintenance rates, Bestuzhev cattle can be raised both in large enterprises and in small private farms.