How to feed a milk cow
In order for the cow to give the necessary norm of milk, it is necessary to correctly compile the diet. The article offers advice on how to properly feed dairy cattle. The classic diet and norms will not be superfluous.
What to feed a cow to have more milk
The ration of a dairy cow should consist of different types of feed. A varied diet is necessary for the intake of a sufficient amount of important nutrients.
Green feeds are natural for animals (in particular, in the spring-summer period) and increase milk yield. They can be consumed both freshly cut and in pasture conditions, on which animals will independently control the amount of food eaten.These foods include:
Important! Control the quality and freshness of the cut grass. The processes of decay and the formation of fungus adversely affect livestock health and milk quality.
Juicy foods include plant foods with a moisture content of up to 90%. They include:
- silo (including combined).
Did you know? In the silo, up to 70-75% of moisture and 85-90% of nutrients are stored.
Coarse feeds are plant foods that contain a lot of fiber and little moisture. Among them, the most popular are:
Concentrates and Additives
To increase the quantity and quality of micro- and macronutrients ingested by the cow, farmers resort to the addition of concentrates and additives to the feed. In the diet of cattle dairy direction add:
- beer grains;
- fodder yeast;
- compound feed;
- a piece of chalk;
- growth stimulants;
- cereal flour;
- fish fat.
Did you know? To increase milk yield and fat content of milk up to 4%, rapeseed flour can be added to the diet (up to 8.5% of the total diet).
As an additive for dairy cows, animal products are used. The main purpose of adding such foods to the diet is to increase the amount of protein, which helps to increase milk yield.
These foods include:
- meat and bone meal;
- blood meal;
- fish products.
When compiling a diet for cattle in the dairy direction, some points must be taken into account (for example, the differences between dairy and pregnant cows and their needs).
Important! Overfeeding animals can lead to disruption of the digestive tract and the development of pathologies.
When compiling a diet, the weight and age of the animal are important. So, too thin cows should increase their intake and feed more intensively.Young cows also need a 10% increase in servings. During milking, to stabilize lactation and milk production, diet can also be increased, but in a reasonable amount. A dairy cow should consume all types of feed (green, coarse, juicy, animals), as well as additives and concentrates.
Proper feeding of a pregnant female is one of the main factors for successful gestation and childbirth. A special diet must be developed starting from the moment of fertilization. Food should be nutritious and easily digestible. The cow needs to consume the norm of green and succulent feeds, especially forbs and fodder beets. Of the coarse products, preferably bean hay.
It is important to add concentrates, additives in the form of vitamins, fodder yeast, bran, chalk and limestone, as well as additives of animal origin (fish oil and meat and bone meal). All this is important to maintain a balance of nutrition, micro, macronutrients, vitamins and minerals.
Summer and winter feeding of cattle is different. In the summer, cows have the opportunity to graze on pastures. For this reason, green feed predominates in their diet. If grazing does not provide the animal with the necessary nutritional value, pre-prepared herbal supplements are additionally used. However, the importance of other types of feed cannot be neglected - coarse, concentrated, succulent and animal feed should also be among animal food in the summer.Winter feeding differs from summer feeding in the absence of grazing. During this period, the basis of the diet is silage, hayed roughage and succulent products in the form of root crops.
Diet and feeding rates: table
Consumption rates of different feeds vary depending on the season and whether a pregnant cow or a cash cow.
Dry cow feeding ration: table
Winter diet for feeding a dead cow:
Summer diet for feeding a dead cow:
Dairy cow feeding ration: table
Winter cash cow ration:
Summer ration for feeding a cash cow:
Dairy cows need proper nutrition. A well-composed diet will increase milk yield and milk quality, as well as help maintain a healthy animal activity.