Cattle anthrax: symptoms and treatment, vaccine
Among animal diseases, anthrax is especially dangerous. We will tell about its features, treatment and prevention in this article.
What is this disease
Anthrax is an infectious disease in which the internal organs, lymph nodes and skin of an animal become inflamed. If sanitary rules and preventive measures are not observed, the infection affects the human body. As a rule, this disease is fatal.
The history of this disease originates several centuries BC. In the Middle Ages, it was distributed throughout Europe. According to the annals, anthrax in Russia appeared in 978. It gained special distribution there in the XYIII – XIX centuries.
Did you know? The name of the disease came from Siberia, because in the XIX – XX centuries there were a lot of reindeer in it. Also, sometimes the disease is called anthrax (coal). This is due to the black color of the ulcer.
The disease was actively studied by veterinarians during the existence of the Soviet Union. Then vaccines were created for her.
In order to eliminate the sources of the disease and carry out all quarantine measures, considerable finances are needed. Also, a lot of money goes to vaccinate animals and people, so this disease causes great economic damage to the state.
Pathogen, sources and route of infection
The causative agent of the disease is a gram-positive motionless stick. The most favorable environment for its reproduction is at a temperature of +15 ... + 42 ° С. She can live in a decaying corpse for a whole week.
In frosts down to -15 ° C, the stick can remain viable for two weeks. In the soil it exists for decades and lives in water for years. When environmental conditions become unfavorable, the bacterium forms spores and for a long time remains in this form until the conditions for existence become positive.
The causative agent of an ulcer can be destroyed only under prolonged exposure to high temperature (up to +60 ° C), solar radiation and standard disinfectants (hydrogen peroxide, chloramine and others). Sources of infection are sick pets.
The disease is transmitted in this way:
- in contact with a sick animal;
- in contact with urine or feces of infected livestock, with contaminated water;
- through food with infection;
- through the mediation of insects (especially flies);
- when slaughtering an infected animal;
- by inhalation of bone meal;
- in contact with contaminated soil.
Signs and course of the disease
Anthrax has the following symptoms. A spot of red-bluish tint appears on the body, similar to an insect bite. Further, the stain develops into a red papule. It increases and forms a vesicle with serous and then bloody fluid.
After the vesicle bursts, an ulcer forms. Over time, it increases. After 1-2 weeks, a black scab forms in the center of the ulcer. The ulcer along the edges becomes very inflamed. After 2-3 weeks, the scab is rejected, and a granulating ulcer is formed, which heals in the form of a scar.
Cattle die within a few hours after infection. Animals are sharply excited, then their condition is inhibited. Intermittent frequent breathing is observed. The mucous membranes of livestock acquire a bluish tint. Muscle tremors and cramps occur throughout the body. Bloody discharge is released from the nose and mouth.
The disease in this form lasts 2-3 days, after which the cattle die.
The acute course of the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:
- lactation and chewing gum ceases;
- body temperature rises yes 42 °;
- the stomach swells, colic occurs;
- breathing becomes irregular;
- constipation or diarrhea appears;
- the surface of the eyes becomes cyanotic, with blood points;
- neck and chest swelling;
- spotting from the nose and mouth appears.
The subacute form of the course is manifested by the same symptoms as the acute one. The difference is that the symptoms do not develop as rapidly as in previous types of course. For a short time, improvement may occur. Then it is again replaced by deterioration. The animal dies in 6-8 days after infection.
After infection, the livestock body begins to change:
- dead animals are swollen;
- they do not stiffen;
- dark blood is released from the passages in the body, which does not clot after death.
Anthrax is diagnosed by the following clinical signs:
- Cattle fever.
- Spot hemorrhages on the mucous membrane of the eyes.
- Carbuncle on the body.
- In pigs, the disease can be complicated by angina.
- Horses may have colic.
The disease can also be recognized by the following signs of corpses:
- They decompose very quickly.
- Hemorrhagic secretions come out of the openings of the body.
- The body of the animal does not stiffen.
Treatment and Quarantine
Anthrax is treated with gamma globulin. It is taken orally or injected under the skin. At the same time, animals are given special antibiotics (Penicillin, cephalosporins, Levomycetin, Ciprofloxacin) according to the instructions. The duration of treatment is determined by the veterinarian individually for each cattle.
Animals that become sick with anthrax, but have recovered, acquire immunity, and in the future the body is able to fight disease-causing bacilli on its own.
In the territory where the infection appeared, quarantine is imposed on such objects:
- factories that process agricultural products.
During the spread of the disease, the following actions cannot be performed:
- take cattle for grazing;
- to kill him;
- to harvest skins and other products of animal origin;
- distribute milk outside the territory in which the infection is fixed. Before use, it must be boiled.
Did you know? People who kill sick animals, sell their furs, meat, milk without veterinary supervision, are prosecuted because they contribute to the spread of anthrax.
The area for cattle grazing needs to be changed. The premises in which he lives must be thoroughly disinfected with bleach or another drug. The remains of the feed of a sick animal, its milk is burned.The soil on which the corpse of infected cattle lay was burned with fire, watered with a hot 10% caustic solution, 4% formaldehyde solution or 20% milk of lime.
After this, the soil is dug up to a depth of 20 cm, and after 4 hours the same actions are repeated again. Further, the topsoil is mixed with bleach in a ratio of 3: 1.
Important! In order for all pathogens to be killed as a result of processing in the soil, 100 l of liquid per 10 cubic meters must be used. m square.
In the same way, you need to disinfect the soil in the stalls. The difference lies in the fact that a soil layer of up to 20 cm is collected and taken out of the cattle cemetery. After disinfection, fresh soil is poured and rammed.
What to do with dead animals
Animals killed as a result of illness should not be buried in the ground. The causative agent of infection is stored in their body. When it decomposes, the bacterium leaves the soil. When exposed to water and soil erosion, it falls to the surface. There it can be captured by animals with grass or water and become infected.
Corpses need only be burned. This can be done in special incinerators in large enterprises. If this is not possible, burning should be carried out in the field.For this, large pits are excavated crosswise, the width of which is 60 cm, the length is 260 cm, the depth is 50 cm.First they put logs or rails, then corpses. Firewood is put on top, which is poured with gasoline or other kindling liquid.
Important! To burn the body of one adult cow, 1.25 cubic meters are needed. m firewood and almost 10 liters of kindling fluid.
When carrying out the procedure for burning corpses, people should be dressed in special protective suits to avoid infection. A gauze bandage is put on the face.
The vaccine for anthrax should regularly be done by veterinarians, livestock breeders, milkmaids, as well as people of other professions whose work concerns animals. Vaccination is also required for people working with animal meat and other raw materials of animal origin.
Laboratory workers who analyze raw materials for the presence of a source of infection must be vaccinated.
Vaccines can be applied subcutaneously and subcutaneously to people from 14 to 60 years old. First, it is administered twice with an interval of 20-30 days. Then they are vaccinated once a year. It is also necessary to vaccinate livestock.
In areas where the disease often appears, he is given a vaccine once a year. If there is a high risk of infection, livestock are vaccinated once every six months. Calves are vaccinated for the first time 14 days after birth, and then every six months.
There are such measures for the prevention of anthrax:
- The introduction of various restrictions in the regions where the disease is recorded.
- Regular inspection of the foci of the epidemic at the state level.
- Compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements for keeping animals.
- Regular vaccination.
As you can see, anthrax is a very serious disease, not only in cows, but also in other domestic animals. In order to protect yourself and your economy from it, you need to follow all the preventive measures mentioned in this article.