How to treat pig faces
Erysipelas are found not only in pigs; they often infect sheep. The main source of infection with this disease is livestock feed. The disease is difficult to treat, and it is almost impossible to eradicate it without the use of medications. In addition, the disease is dangerous not only for animals, but also for humans, especially if there are wounds on the skin. The article will focus on how pig faces are treated.
Description of the disease
This infectious disease was recorded in antiquity. But the stick, which is the causative agent of the disease, was first described in the nineteenth century. Prior to this, the pathogen was unknown, and scientists thought the face was an infection, calling it "anthrax."
Before finding the source of infection, scientists could not find a vaccine against the disease, and only in the nineteenth century the best minds of that time began to develop it.
Did you know? Erysipelas bacteria adapt so well to their habitats that they can often parasitize even on fish (independently – river or sea), insects and arthropods.
The disease today is very common throughout the world. This wand is capable of capturing vast territories, causing considerable losses to farms that are engaged in pig farming.
The disease does not affect all pigs, but only individuals whose age is from three months to a year. Infection occurs after contact with bacterial carriers, which are usually already infected animals. This contact is not necessarily characterized by the content of healthy and infected individuals. Infection can occur through the meat of sick pigs, waste, waste products, feeders - with everything that the sick pig has come into contact with. The pathogen can be transmitted by bloodsucking insects and mice.
The disease is more seasonal in nature, since it spreads most intensively in the warm season, when the environment is favorable for the spread of bacteria, and pigs can come into contact with the ground, where the pathogen lives.
The causative agent of erysipelas
Erysipelothrix insidiosa is a bacterium that causes pork erysipelas. It can be anywhere and quickly adapt to local conditions.
Erysipelothrix insidiosa bacteria
This is a static microorganism that does not multiply by spores and does not form capsules. The bacterium changes, adapting to a different environment; can live for months in soil, manure, water, dead carcasses of cattle.
You can kill the bacteria by using only high temperatures for processing meat (not less than + 70 ° C). In this case, the microorganism dies after 5 minutes, but after salting or smoking, the microorganism continues to live in the carcass. The bacterium is not affected by cold, that is, it will not work to kill it with low temperatures.
Antibiotics and disinfection can affect bacteria. Disinfect animal dishes and other items with bleach, alkali and formaldehyde.
In the pig's body, this bacterium takes root in 5 days. The animal becomes lethargic, practically does not eat, it rises in temperature, energy disappears. A couple of days later, inflammation forms on the pig's skin, which are mainly localized on the neck, sides and back. Shortness of breath and increased heart rate up to a hundred beats per minute are added to the symptoms, lymph nodes become inflamed.
If you do not pay attention to these signs in time and do not call a veterinarian, then by 4-5 days the animal will die. Also, the disease can drag on, developing into a chronic form. In this case, the pig begins problems with the heart, joints, tissue dies.All this leads to death.
Course and symptoms
After the incubation period, which lasts a maximum of eight days, the course of the disease can take on a different nature:
Most often, veterinarians observe an acute condition when a lot of livestock die. Therefore, experts say that it is necessary to start treatment, barely noticing the signs of the disease. The sooner the animal begins a course of antibiotics, the lower the mortality rate in the population.
Such a course of the disease is quite rare. It is observed mainly in piglets, whose age is from 7 months to 10. Erysipelas in such cases occurs instantly due to heavy moving, poor nutrition, and poor hygiene. It can also occur in weakened adults.
In animals, the temperature jumps, general weakness and depression are observed, interruptions in the work of the heart begin. Ulcers do not appear on the skin, so this course of the disease is called the “white form”.
The very name of this period speaks of the rapid course of the disease. So it is, because death occurs within a few hours.
Acute erysipelas is more common and is characterized by blood poisoning. The body temperature of the pig rises sharply to 42. The animal becomes sedentary and weak, keeps aloof from relatives, the gait changes. The infected individual practically does not eat, it has constipation and vomiting.
Due to heart and kidney failure, the lungs swell in the animal. Shortness of breath appears, the skin turns blue.
With this form, the animal appears spots that change color from light pink to red. Without treatment, the animal may die already on the second - at most on the fifth day.
This form is observed most often. In this case, first of all, a rash appears on the animal’s body, the body swells, the lymph nodes become inflamed. The temperature rises sharply - up to + 41 ° C.
The animal hides, weakens, eats little, does not drink. On the second day, the skin of the animal is covered with square, rhomboid or oval spots, which become lighter if pressed on. Often this form lasts from a few days to a week, and the animal, as a result, recovers.
This form occurs if the disease is started or went in a latent form.
In this case, the skin of the animal is affected in such a way that it begins to die in separate areas. Cardiac enodocarditis and severe chronic diseases occur. Also, the bacterium negatively affects the growth of the animal, which slows down greatly.
The pig’s musculoskeletal system suffers, arthritis, rheumatism, lameness, joints are destroyed.
How to treat at home
It is not necessary to send a sick pig to a hospital in a veterinary institution, since it is possible to cure the disease at home. The best medicines for erysipelas will be antibiotics, treatment serum and special medications.
Sometimes, folk remedies are used to eradicate the manifestations of the disease, but often they do not have a sufficiently strong effect, but can only provide temporary relief.
If the animal has a sharp increase in temperature, and the body is covered with spots that, when pressed, turn white, you can help the animal with the vinegar before the veterinarian arrives. The liquid is diluted in the proportion of a bottle in a bucket of water. In this solution, the coarse tissue with which the animal is covered is wetted.
One of the symptoms of erysipelas is constipation, for the elimination of which you can prepare an enema, up to two liters. It will be especially useful for piglets, because their body is weaker.
Red spots on the skin can be sprinkled with crushed chalk and covered with a red cloth flap. This will relieve swelling and swelling. Yarrow and a golden ball also relieve pain.
All folk remedies are good in case of a quick detection of the disease, since they can greatly alleviate the condition of the pig, which will help her to wait for the arrival of a specialist. In particular, such procedures are important for piglets that may die from pain.
It must be remembered that even though these methods are good, official veterinary medicine does not recommend neglecting pharmaceuticals, since years of practice have shown that, without medical treatment, traditional medicine is not able to cure an erysipelas. Treatment of erysipelas became possible only with the advent of pharmacy, and before that the livestock massively died.
After the animal is healthy again (usually this happens after ten days), the pig needs to disinfect the skin and legs, and only then can the cattle be returned to the general herd. The rest of the livestock, which passed the disease, must undergo compulsory vaccination.
Do not neglect the cleanliness and in the conditions of treatment at home. It is necessary to disinfect the premises where pigs are kept and isolate the sick animal from the rest.
For effective treatment of erysipelas, experienced pig farmers use antibiotics, the dosage of which is usually standard and ranges from two to three milliliters per kilogram of pig weight (administered intramuscularly). These drugs have a targeted effect on the infection.
The most commonly used is Bicillin, which has a prolonged effect and is not excreted from the blood for four weeks after its introduction into the body.
The proportion of the drug is 10000-20000 units. per kilogram of pig weight. This medicine is recommended to be dissolved in anticonvulsant serum. Experts recommend in parallel with the antibiotic to give the animal cardiological drugs that will reduce the burden on the heart, which is already too large. This measure will not only help maintain a healthy heart, but also make the animal calmer.
From the body, the drug is excreted through the kidneys, and a decrease in its amount in the blood begins already on the eighth day.
The dosage of the drug and the number of injections are purely individual, so before you decide to treat the animal, you must consult your veterinarian.
Important! Products from vaccinated animals can be consumed and sold without obstacles. Remember: you cannot slaughter a pig earlier than 7 days after the injection, otherwise the meat will be unsuitable for consumption.
The vaccine against swine erysipelas looks like a milky mass with small pores. This tool is able to completely dissolve in saline, and the basis for the manufacture of the drug is strain BP-2.
If the risk of infection of the livestock with this disease is high, it is worth vaccinating all individuals in the herd, and separate those already infected with the others and also vaccinate. This procedure is combined with the use of antibacterial drugs, but it is worth doing this only according to the instructions.
If you decide to take the vaccine for preventive purposes, then it is better to do it in the spring, because it is better to inject it before the season of infection activity. And small piglets are allowed to be vaccinated from three months of age up to a year.
It is strictly forbidden to administer the vaccine to those animals in which diseases caused by parasites are observed; if it is weak or exhausted, infected with other infectious ailments. Then it is best to resort to the use of alternative methods of treatment.
During vaccination, a person should be as careful as possible and avoid getting the drug on his skin and mucous membranes. If this happened, then immediately wash the affected areas with running water, wash your hands with laundry soap and treat them with a disinfectant. This procedure is especially relevant if there are disturbances in the skin on your skin.
The preventive measures that are used for pigs are determined by the veterinarian.There is a range of drugs that are used for this. Most often, experts prescribe concentrated or deposited hydroxide (aluminum formol vaccine).
Measures to prevent the disease are carried out only with healthy animals that have reached two months of age. Serum is injected twice with an interval of two weeks. The procedure is repeated every six months, since the action of the drug is enough for 3-6 months.
This serum was developed specifically to prevent erysipelas and plague in pigs and has an immunostimulating effect.
A mandatory course is the introduction of a vaccine for piglets that are injected with the drug at the very beginning of life. The first injection of the drug is carried out at the age of two months (an injection is given behind the ear), the second time the procedure is repeated after a month, and the third injection falls on the seventh month of the life of the pig.
After this course, the animal may develop permanent immunity to erysipelas, but with self-vaccination it is necessary to carefully study the instructions.
To prevent the spread of erysipelas (if obvious signs of occurrence are already observed), owners need to forget for some time about buying a new livestock and selling their own, as well as urgently isolating infected animals from the rest of the herd.
In addition to drug prevention, do not forget about basic hygiene. The premises where pigs are kept should be regularly cleaned and disinfected with solutions of sodium, soda or lime, after which the room is well ventilated. Only then can cattle be run there.
Important! Erysipelas bacteria will certainly die after the pigsty is disinfected. This can be done with a solution of caustic soda, bleach or soda. The procedure is carried out immediately by one of these tools.
Is it possible to eat meat
The meat of pigs suffering from erysipelas, although it is not advisable, is possible. To neutralize the bacterium, meat must be thoroughly boiled and examined before eating for salmonellosis and other dangerous bacteria.
According to the rules of pig breeding, the slaughter of infected animals is allowed only after removal of the quarantine. It is better to use meat only after carrying out a complete cure of the animal and not earlier than removing the medicine from the pig’s body.
During slaughter and cutting, you need to be extremely careful, as a person can easily catch an infection.
We recommend reading how to properly slaughter and butcher a pig.
Is it transmitted to humans
For humans, swine erysipelas infection is also quite dangerous. It does not so much affect the body, but can cause many unpleasant symptoms. Infection with an erysipelatous bacterium in humans is called the Rosenbach erisipeloid. It appears in several forms:
- Cutaneous. The most common form in which violet bright spots of large diameter form on the skin. It starts like a fungus. The spots do not bother or hurt, but they spread very quickly over the skin of that part of the body that was originally affected. It can spill all over the body (while the initially affected area recovers, and the diseased skin peels off). In parallel with skin spots, headaches, weakness, nausea, and joints can disturb. The disease most often goes away on its own through a period of 15 to 20 days.
- Joint. With the course of this form of the patient, joints that can hurt and swell are very concerned. This continues for several weeks and leads to deformation.
- Generalized. Very rare and severe manifestation. In this case, the symptoms of the two previous forms occur, and the recovery itself does not occur for a long time. The disease can take root in the internal organs. This happens if a person has eaten poorly processed, infected meat. Bacteria begin to multiply in the esophagus and stomach, which leads to an extremely severe course of the disease.
- Septicemia. Most often found in those who had direct contact with a sick animal, and its virus entered the bloodstream. In this case, the bacterium infects any part of the body.
Did you know? Of all those who have had this disease, 7-8% have a relapse, which can occur several times over a period of up to seven years. In medical practice, there have been cases when patients were ill with Rosenbach's erisipeloid twenty times.
Erysipelas in pigs is a very serious illness and can lead to considerable losses. But it is easy to prevent, simply observing cleanliness in the pigsty. And in time, reacting to the slightest manifestations of the disease, you can start treatment, thereby preventing catastrophic loss of livestock.